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Habitat

These species are generally found in areas where permanent wetlands and marshes are nearby, as the larvae are semi aquatic. Horseflies are mostly observed in numbers in rural areas where they are a pest of livestock.



Biology

Mated adult females lay batches of eggs onto the leaves of plants in marshy or waterlogged areas. Hatch occurs generally in 1 - 2 weeks, the larval stages dropping into nearby water and passing through up to 8 instars over several months before reaching pupation. This occurs in the mud, with the adult emerging less than 1 month later.

Insecta     Diptera   

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Pest Status

Bites are usually painful, involving the fly extracting a blood meal from a large mammalian host (livestock, humans etc). These flies are not associated with the transmission of disease.



Control

Control of these species in the practical sense is extremely difficult due to the nature of their life cycle. Livestock may be partially protected by the use of impregnated ear tags where permitted. Repellents such as DEET may be effective.

 

 


   

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